INGOMA NYIGINYA (INGOMA NTUTSI)


• U Rwanda rwa Gasabo kuva mu w’1450 kugera mu w’1895

Ijambo “Rwanda” ryaba rituruka ku nshinga ya kera “kwanda” bivuga gukwira hirya no hino. Izina “Rwanda” riranga ahantu urisanga mu ntara ya Busoga iri mu burasirazuba bwa Uganda, kimwe no muri Ankole. Mu gihugu cyacu rero hakaba Rwanda rwa Binaga ho mu Rweya (Mutara), Rwanda rwa Gasabo (banahita Rwanda rwa Ndanyoye) iri muri Komini Gikomero, hari na Rwanda rwa Kamonyi (Komini Taba), ndetse hari na Rwanda yo mu bya Kalemi (Zayire) mu burengerazuba bw’ikiyaga cya Tanganyika. Havugwa ko Abanyiginya bagitangira kwigarurira ibihugu, umusozi batsinze wose wazaga usanga Rwanda (rwa Gasabo). Aho kuri Rwanda ngo niho babyariye (biciye) imfizi ya Gihanga y’Ubwami Rugira, n’insumba yayo Ingizi. Ngiyo rero “Rwanda rugari rwa Gasabo”, ngo bavuga gutyo umutima w’Umunyiginya ugatengurwa n’ibyishimo. Ndetse bakongeraho ngo “Rwanda rwa Gasabo, urwo mvuga mvumera iwacu”. Mbese ni mu ngobyi y’ubwami bw’Abanyiginya.

 

1. Ruganzu I Bwimba kugera kuri Mibambwe I Sekarongoro I Mutabazi I


Umwami wa mbere wimye i Gasabo uzwi mu bitekerezo ni Ruganzu I Bwimba; icyo gihe Gisaka yari ikomeye kurusha u Rwanda. Umwami w’i Gisaka yari Kimenyi Musaya warongoye Robwa, mushiki wa Ruganzu wa I Bwimba. Ruganzu I Bwimba yishwe n’ingabo z’i Gisaka. Bavuga ko bimaze kuba ngo uwo Robwa yaba yarisekuye ku nkota kugira ngo umwana atwite atazavamo umwami w’i Gisaka. Uwo Ruganzu I Bwimba na mushiki we Robwa babarirwa mu batabazi bitangiye ingoma nyiginya.

Ku ngoma y’uwakurikiyeho, ariwe Cyirima I Rugwe, u Rwanda rwiyongereyeho u Buriza n’u Bwanacyambwe. Ku ngoma ya Kigeri I Mukobanya (hari abemeza ko uwo Mukobanya na murumuna we Sekarongoro bari ibikomangoma by’i Bugesera, bakaba rero bari Abahondogo) niho habaye igitero cya I cy’Abanyoro (baturutse mu bunyoro ho muri Uganda; bari bakomeye kandi bangije u Rwanda bikabije) bayobowe n’umwami wabo Cwa I. Icyo gihe byari mu by’1520, akaba ari nabwo Mibambwe I Sekarongoro yakomerekejwe n’umwambi mu gahanga, bamuhimba igisingizo cya “Mutabazi”.

 

 

2. Igitero cya II cy’Abanyoro n’itsindwa rya Nduga


Mu myaka yakurikiye urwimo rwe, Mibambwe I Sekarongoro I Mutabazi I yihatiye kwigarurira Nduga (ubundi yari atuye Gasabo, nyuma ajya mu Bumbogo). Nduga y’Ababanda iranga imubera ibamba. Ku Mugina wa Jenda, mu Kona ka Mashyoza n’i Kigorora (hose ni ku mayaga), mu rugamba rumwe hagwa Abacengezi b’u Rwanda batabarika. Bavuga ko uwo Mibambwe I yakoranyije ingabo agatera i Nduga hakamunanira neza. Arongera agabayo abatabazi b’abacengeri: Gatambira ka Mibambwe I nyine aza ariwe, agwa mu Rugondo rwa Tambwe, ho mu Nduga.

Ibyo aribyo byose Mashira nawe yohereje ibitero mu Rwanda byambuka Nyabarongo. Hari n’icyari kigabwe n’umuhungu we witwaga Ngoga, kigera mu Muhanda wa Nzovi, hasi ya Nyamweru (muri Komini Shyorongi). Uwo Ngoga ngo yaharanduye ikimana (ikivumu cy’umuterekero) cyo gutsinda Nduga Mibambwe yari yarahateye.

Mashira amaze kunanirana, Mibambwe I Sekarongoro arazibukira iby’imirwano aba abishyize iruhande, maze ingoma y’Ababanda irasugira. Nibwo rero Mibambwe I yigiriye imigambi yo kugirana imimaro (amasezerano yo kutarwana ) na Mashira; biremezwa Mashira aba umwami wa Nduga. Nyuma yaho imishyikirano yarakomeye, ndetse haziraho no gushyingirana. Nuko Mashira arongora Nyirantorwa, umukobwa wa Mibambwe I, Mibamwe uwo nawe ari we “Semutakirwa Semutambanashakwe, umwami w’i Mbirima na Mutovu” (ho muri Komini Musasa), arongora “Bwiza bwa Mashira budashira irora n’irongorwa” : ngo yari mwiza atagira uko asa; naho Gahindiro ka Mibambwe I arongora Nyankeri ya Mashira (twibuke ko habayeho ba Gahindiro batatu bakomoka kuri ba Mibambwe I, II, III).
Nyuma y’ubwo busabane buvanzemo politiki, ni ho hadutse igitero cya kabiri cy’Abanyoro. Mibambwe I yagerageje kwitabaza Bugesera, Gisaka na Nduga ibyo bihugu byanga kumutabara. Nuko Mibambwe abonye yugarijwe n’Abanyoro kandi u Rwanda rwe rumaze gusibama, ahitamo guhunga, ahungana n’ingabo n’abaturage ndetse n’amatungo, berekeza mu Bushi (mu bya Bukavu y’ubu). Mu mirwamo arahagwa Forongo mwene Mibambwe I, maze abarirwa mu batabazi. Abanyoro batera n’i Gisaka, ariko ntibyakomera; batera u Bugesera umwami Sengano arahagwa. Bakurikirana Mibambwe I ariko bagenda intage ari nako bacunga iminyago. Udusigisigi twabo dutura mu majyepfo y’i Nduga, ahahindutse Indara (Indarirane z’Abanyoro, ndetse aho hari n’inzu ubu yitwa “Abanyoro”ibakomokaho).

Mibambwe I n’Abanyarwanda be bumvise ko Cwa I, umwami w’Abanyoro yapfuye, barahunguka. Mu ihunguka Mibambwe I yagiye asubira mu mararo ye y’igihe yahungaga: ava i Remera rya Kabagari (Komini Masango), anyura i Gitwe agera i Nyamagana (Komini Tambwe). Arakomeza ajya kwagira sebukwe akaba n’umukwe we Mashira wari utuye i Nyanza icyo gihe. Mashira rero yaje gusanganira sebukwe, ntacyo yikeka: arazimana. Igihe bigeze hagati, baramufata, Mibambwe I aramwica, amutsinda ahongaho i Nyanza. Ibyo kwa Mashira birarimbuka, i Nduga itsindwa itsinzwe noneho. Nuko bene Mashira barahashirira, n’ubwo ubungubu hakiri abamwiyitirira.

 

 

• Ibyatumye Nduga itsindwa


Ukwirara hamwe n'ikizere ngo kiraza amasinde. Mu by'ukuri bivanze n'ubupfayongo. Dore nawe, Mashira ntiyari abuze ingabo zikomeye kandi nyinshi, ariko we yahugiye mu byo kubana neza no gushyingirana, mu gihe Mibambwe I hamwe n'Abatutsi n'Abahutu b'abagaragu babo (ngo abenci bari Abasinga) bo bari bagamije politiki, iyi idatinya kwica amasezerano, umubano no gutsemba isano.

Ubugambanyi bwa Munyanya. Munyanya yavaga indimwe na Mashira mwa se wabo; yifatanyije na Mibambwe I mu kwica Mashira.

• Inkurikizi z'itsindwa rya Nduga
Itsindwa rya Nduga ni intambwe ikomeye cyane mu mateka y'u Rwanda. Ibyo byatumye u Rwanda rubona aho ruhera hagaragara, rutera utundi duhugu. Nduga yari isanganywe ubutegetsi bufutuye, bukomeye.

Abanyanduga bakomeje gushyamirana n'abanyiginya. Uburangare ntibwabaye ubwa bose. Mu bitongero by'imihango bagerageje kunga Nduga n'abayigaruriye bavuga ngo: "tuza... nk'inono y'Abasindi na Kibanda". Ni ukuvuga ngo: worohe nk'ifu y'inono ihuza Abasindi (ni ukuvuga Abanyiginya) na Kibanda y'Ababanda. Mu by'ukuri ngo no mu by'1930, Ababanda bo mu Nduga bari bagicyurirana n'Abanyiginya. Naho inshyuro z'Abanyiginya ari hamwe n'Abasinga zigaragarira mu bisigo byo ku ngoma ya Cyirima II Rujugira bibwirwa Muhabura, umusizi w'umubanda.

Hari Ababanda benci batotejwe, maze bamwe mu batarapfuye barahunga bagana mu Buriza, mu majyaruguru y'u Rwanda n'ahandi. Hari abimukanye amazina y'aho baturutse: Marangara (muri Komini Nyamutera) Jenda (muri Komini Nkuri); hari na Jenda bimukanye mu Bunyambiriri (Gikongoro).

Nduga yabaye umutima w'u Rwanda rw'Abanyiginya: abami barahikunze baharema imirwa myinshi, nyuma ibitero byinci byakwiriye impande zose z'u Rwanda rw'icyo gihe, byitwaga ko bigabwe n'Abanyenduga, baba Abatutsi baba Abahutu.

Abanyanduga banze kwibagirwa Mashira wabo: baramuterekereye, bararimba bamushyira mu mubare w'imandwa, naho Abatutsi n'abagaragu babo bagumya kumusebya, bagabanya agaciro ke. Nyamara ngo yaba yari igihangange gishishikajwe no kwagura igihugu no kugitegeka neza.

U Bwanacyambwe bwigaruriwe n'Abagesera Abazirankende: Mibambwe I amaze guhunga Abanyoro no kwica Mashira yatuye mu Nduga. U Bwanacyambwe bwari bwarometswe ku Gisaka mu gihe cy'abami bane bo mu Rwanda: Yuhi II Gahima, Ndahiro II Cyamatare, Ruganzu II Ndori, Mutara Semugeshi. Icyo gihe cyose, urubibi rw'i Gisaka rwari umugezi wa Nyabugogo n'uruzi rwa Nyabarongo mu majyaruguru y'u Bwanacyambwe. Byageza n'aho umwami w'i Gisaka, Kimenyi II Shumbusho, aza gutura ku murwa wa Kigali. Abami b'u Rwanda babonye ko badafite amaboko yo kurwanya Gisaka, barekera iyo kugeza kuri Kigeri II Nyamuheshera ( mu by'1770).

 

3. Uko u Rwanda rwaguwe kuri Yuhi II Gahima kugera kuri Kigeri IV Rwabugiri

YUHI II GAHIMA (1552)


Yuhi II Gahima bakunze kumuranga bamusingiza ngo : “Yuhi ryo mu Karambo ka Rukore” (aho ni mu Busigi, hakurya ya Rulindo). Bavuga ko se Mibambwe I wari utuye i Remera ryo mu Buriza hateganye n’u Busigi ari ho, yari atungiye Shetsa umugore we w’inkundwakazi, yageze aho akajya mu Karambo ka Rukore, akarongora Matama ya Bigega ariko rwihishwa. Nibwo Matama uwo abyaye Gahima wabaye Yuhi II. Yuhi Gahima yatangiye ashimangira ubutegetsi bw’abatutsi mu Nduga. Hanyuma yatangiye kugaba ibitero byo kunyaga inka n’abagore mu burengerazuba bw’u Rwanda rw’ubu : yashinze umurwa i Nzaratsi mu Nyantango hafi ya Nyabarongo, asingira u Bwishaza ndetse agera no mu Rusenyi. Aho hose baramurwanya ntiyahamara kabiri. Mu burasirazuba habaye ibitero byo kunyaga mu Buganza bureba Mubari. Mu majyepfo yateye u Bungwe ntibyamuhira.

 

NDAHIRO II CYAMATARE (1576)


Mu bana ba Yuhi II Gahima, hari Bamara, Cyamatare, Juru, Bwimba, Karangana, Mutezi, hakaba na Binama nyina yari yarabyaye kuri Samukende, umwami w’u Bungwe. Yuhi II Gahima yamaze gutanga, abo bana be barwanira ingoma banga kuyoboka Ndahiro wa II Cyamatare, u Rwanda rucikamo ibice bibiri: Juru yigarurira igice cyo hakurya ya Nyabarongo (u Buriza), naho uburengerazuba buyoboka Ndahiro. Juru amaze gupfa, kimwe na Mutezi na Bwimba, Bamara ashaka gusimbura uwo Juru : kugirango abigereho, yiyemeza gutatira abavandimwe, yitabaza Nsubira Nyebunga, umwami w’umushi wari umaze kwigarurira Ijwi.

Nsibura Nyebunga atera u Rwanda rwa Ndahiro II Cyamatare, urugamba rw’injyanamuntu ruremera i Gitarama. Ndahiro wa II Cyamatare arugwamo ahitwa Rugarama, yambutse umugezi wa Kibirira. Aho niho bise “i Rubi rw’i Nyundo”, kuva ubwo, kwambuka uwo mugezi biba umuziro ku witwa umwami wese. Umugabekazi n’abaja n’abandi bagore barafatwa bicwa urubozo, kuva ubwo aho biciwe hitwa “Mu miko y’abakobwa”. Ingoma y’Ingabe Rwoga ababisha barayivugana. Ubwo u Rwanda rwasaga nk’urugiye kuzima, amacakubiri yo kurwanira atuma abantu basigaye bacura imiborogo, amapfa aracana, ibintu biradogera, ngo ndetse inka ntizaba zikibyara, inkoko ntizaba zigituraga.

 

RUGANZU II NDORI (1600)


Bamwe bavuga ko Ruganzu II Ndori ari mwene Ndahiro II Cyamatare, akaba yaragiye kubundira kwa nyirasenge Nyabunyana wari warashatswe na Karemera Ndangara ya Ruhinda, umwami w’i Karagwe k’Abahinda. Ngo maze mu gihe u Rwanda rwari rugeze mu kaga rugeze aharindimuka, arahagoboka Kavuna Karyankuna wemeye kwitangira igihugu, agenda ararika abantu b’ingenzi bari hirya no hino ngo bamufashe kujya gushaka uwakura u Rwanda habi, hose akagenda avuga ati : „...sindushye ndashonje“. Nuko bakamuzimanira. Amaherezo Kavuna agera i Karagwe, atekerereza Ndori uko u Rwanda rwononekaye, amubwira ko hari abiteguye kumwakira. Amaherezo Ndori arabunduka (ava aho yari yarabundiye: mu rwihisho) yambuka Akagera. Naho Kavuna wari warasigaye inyuma ageze ku ruzi asanga Ndori yari yarabwiye abasare ngo ntibazamwambutse. Kavuna nawe abibonye atyo, yibuka umuruho yagize, afata umuheto we n’imyambi abivunira ku ivi agira ati : „uyu muruho nagize ugapfa ubusa, abagabo b’i Rwanda bazawuruhe, abagore n’abakobwa bazawuruhe, abahungu bazawuruhe“. Ngaho aho byavuye kuvuga ngo „kuruha uwa Kavuna“ (kuruhira ubusa nta nyiturano).

Abandi bati Ruganzu II Ndori ni Umuhinda wateye u Rwanda rwaragirijwe, ararwigarurira, ariko bitamworoheye. Bityo yadukana inzu nshya ya kabiri y’ubwami iturutse ishyanga nk’uko Kigeri I Mukobanya na Mibambwe I Sekarongoro Mutabazi bari Abahondogo.

Uretse rero kutamenya neza inkomoko ya Ruganzu II Ndori, banamwitirira ndetse byinci : Kuvuga ko Ndori yabundiye kwa Karemera Ndagara ya Ruhinda. Yitirirwa ibuye rya Bagenge (Komini Nyarutovu), ngiryo iteme ry’amakoro kuri Rusizi, ngibyo ibibugurizo ku bitare (ibisoro), ngayo amajanja y’imbwa za Ruganzu, n’ibindi.

Bamwitirira byinci, ndetse biruta ibyo bitirira Gihanga. N’ibihugu bavuga ko yagaruye akabyomeka ku Rwanda, ahari ni icyitiriro. Ngo yatsinze ibi bikurikira : ibihugu biri hagati ya Crête Zaire-Nil n’ikiyaga cya Kivu kugera ku mugezi wa Rusizi (Cyangugu); Ijwi (ngo yanateye mu Bushi, ariko ntiyabugaruye); u Bugoyi hamwe n’ibihugu biri inyuma y’ibirunga; u Bugara aho yishe umwami Nzira ya Muramira hamwe n’umugabekazi waho; u Burwi aho yishe Nyaruzi rwa Haramanga mu Mukindo wa Makwaza, Nyaruzi aba atyo umwami wa nyuma w’ingoma y’Abarenge.

Icyo gihangange Ruganzu, bamwe bavuga ko cyivuganywe n’Abahutu b’i Bwishaza, abandi bakavuga ko yarasiwe mu Rusenyi. Ibyo aribyo byose, bamurashe umwambi w’ingobe wahuranya ijisho, nuko abantu baramuheka bamugeza mu Matyazo ya Nyantango (muri Kibuye). Ngo aho hari hatuye abacuzi bashoboye gukuramo uwo mwambi, ariko Ruganzu II Ndori arahagwa. Aho yaguye hitwa „ku Muciro wa Rusenge“ (aho yaciriye). Umulyango w’abamukuyemo umwambi witwa „Abakuro“, bakaba Abatsobe. Uwo Rusenge yari umugaragu wa Ruganzu II Ndori kandi yari Umuhutu. Ngo yarahiyahuriye yanga gukomeza kubaho kandi shebuja amaze gupfa. Uko kwiyahura gutyo bakuvuga no ku ngaboz’intwari z’uwo mwami zicanye zisogotana amacumu zitwaga Ibisumizi: zaguye mu Butansinda bwa Kigoma na Muyange muri Gitarama. Izo ngabo zabarirwaga hamwe n’izindi zitwaga Ingangurarugo, Udusambi, Abaganda (ni ukuvuga abacura).

Ruganzu uwo bavuga ko ariwe wahanze ingoma y’Ingabe Karinga ngo isimbure Rwoga yari yaratwawe na Nsibura. Banavuga ko igihe cye ari ho imandwa zadutse mu Rwanda ziyobowe na Ryangombe umukuru wazo. Nyamara imandwa zigomba kuba zari zisanzwe. Ruganzu II Ndori ngo bamutabaje i Butangampundu mu Buriza (Kigali) hari hagenewe abami baguye ku rugamba cyangwa bakindutse.

 

MUTARA II SEMUGESHI (1624)


Abiru bemeza ko ariwe mwana wenyine wa Ruganzu II Ndori. Ngo yabanje kwima nabi nabi mu buryo budakurikije amategeko kandi yitwa Bicuba (izina rye ry’ubwami). Ngo hanyuma umwiru witwa Mpande ya Rusanga (wavutse iruhenda rw’imfizi y’ibwami yitwaga Rusanga) aza kumwimika neza noneho umwami yitwa Mutara I Semugeshi. Birumvikana ko hari ikintu cy’igihu kitumvikana iyo umuntu ashatse kumenya uko yagiye ku ngoma. Yometse ku Rwanda igihugu cy’Abenengwe cyari kigizwe n’u Bungwe, u Bufundu n’igice cya Busanza.

 

KIGERI II NYAMUHESHERA (1648)


Yabaye umurwanyi cyane hamwe n’ingabo ze zitwaga Inkingi. Byatumye yungura u Rwanda yigarurira uturere dukurikira : Kinyaga cya Bukunzi na Busozo, u Bwanacyambwe bwari bwarajyanwe na Gisaka (Ndorwa yari yarateye i Gisaka ikiganziriza ku Muzizi wa Ryamanyoni muri Komini Rukara, maze Kigeri II arwanya Ndorwa arayinesha iva mu Gisaka, inyiturano iba ko i Gisaka cyashubije u Rwanda u Bwanacyambwe bwarwo), yigaruriye n’u Buberuka hamwe n’uturere turi inyuma y’ibirunga.

 

MIBAMBWE II SEKARONGORO II GISANURA (1672)


Nta gihugu yongeye ku Rwanda. Ahubwo azwiho ubwitonzi, kugira ubuntu, guha amata abakene begereye ibwami. Ibyo byatumyebamuhimba igisingizo bamwita “Rugabishabirenge”. Azwiho no kuba umucamanza utabera kandi wangaga ibihano bidakwiye umuntu.

Umunsi umwe, Gisanura yabajije abatware be igihano gisumbye ibindi, buri wese agenda avuga icye. Umwami asanze bikabije, buri wese amuhanisha icyo yagiye avuga. Nguko uko umwe wari watahuye ko igihano cyiza ari ugusambura inzu ziri hafi, bagacaniriza urutare iyo sakamburiro kugeza aho urutare rutukura, noneho umugome bakarumushyiraho agashirira. Ibyo byahimbwe n’umutware witwaga Kamegeri. Umwami yasanze nta muntu mubi (w’umugome) kurusha Kamegeri. Nuko aca iteka ko uwo Kamegeri bamuhanisha icyo gihano kibi yahimbiye abandi. Noneho baramuboha bamujugunya ari muzima ku rutare bacaniriye rwatukuye. Urutare ruramukaranga agenda arwibirinduraho. Ngibyo iby’urutare rwa Kamegeri (ruri munsi y’umuhanda hagati ya Ruhango n’ibiro bya Komini Kigoma).

 

YUHI II MAZIMPAKA (1969) NA KAREMERA RWAKA (1728)


Ku ngoma yabo nta gihugu kizwi cyongewe ku Rwanda rw’icyo gihe.

 

CYIRIMA II RUJUGIRA (1744)


Uwo mwami yabaye umutegetsi uhamye n’umuyobozi w’ingabo nyakuri. Yagaragaje ubuhanga bwo gukingira igihugu, akabuza ababisha kukivogera. Amaze gutsinda abaharaniraga ingoma, yagize ikibazo gikakaye : u Burundi, u Bugesera, i Gisaka n’i Ndorwa byibumbiye hamwe ngo byagirize u Rwanda.
Dore uko yabigenjeje : Icya mbere ni uko yumvishije rubanda ko bagomba kurinda ubusugire bw’igihugu, ngo ndetse kubera iyo mpamvu yashyize rubanda mu ngabo kugirango yumvishe neza agaciro n’akamaro ka rubanda. Icya kabiri ni uko urwo ruhare yahaye rubanda rwatumye ashobora kurema imitwe y’ingabo cumi n’umwe kandi ihamye, ayikwirakwiza ku mupaka w’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Dore zimwe mu ngerero yashyizeho : ingabo zitwaga Indara, Imvejuru, Inyakare, Inyaruguru, zahaye amazina yazo uturere zari zirindiyemo, mu bya Gakoma hari Ababanda, i Mututu hakaba Abarima. Hari n’izindi ngabo yari afite : Ababito, Intarindwa, Abadahemuka, Igicikiza, Imanga, Abakemba, Indirira. Bityo yashoboye guhigika u Burundi, hanyuma ingabo ziyobowe n’umuhungu we Sharangabo zitera i Gisaka naho Ndorwa iterwa n’iziyobowe n’undi muhungu we Ndabarasa, wahateye ataraba umwami akanahagarura amaze kwima. Kuva ku ngoma ya Cyirima II Rujugira niho imvugo yakwiriye ngo “u Rwanda ruratera ntiruterwa”.

 

KIGERI III NDABARASA (1768)


Itsindwa rya Mubari (mu Mazinga : muri pariki Akagera)
Igihugu cy’u Mubari cyatsinzwe nka Nduga, kuko hombi habaye ubucuti bw’amayeri, gushyingirana no kurwanisha intwaro. Kigeri III yijeje ubucuti Biyoro, umwami w’u Mubari kandi amushyingira umukobwa we witwaga Nyabugondo. Bukeye Kigeri III atumira umukwe we Biyoro na Nyirabiyoro. Mu gihe bagiye kumureba, bagwa mu gico cy’abo kwa Kigeri III, Nyirabiyoro arafatwa, Biyoro ashobora kubacika ahungira i Karagwe. Kigeri III nibwo yihanije umwami w’i Karagwe, nuko uwo mwami atanga Biyoro, Kigeri III yica Biyoro n’umugabekazi Nyirabiyoro.
Itsindwa rya Ndorwa y’Abashambo
Kigeri III Ndabarasa yamaze gutsinda Ndorwa (akoresheje intambara), maze arahaba biratinda, ari ukugira ngo Ndorwa itabyutsa umutwe. Uwo mwami yaguye ku itabaro (yabaye nk’ukinduka, urwo yazize ntibaruvuga).

 

MIBAMBWE III MUTABAZI III SENTABYO (1792)


Ku ngoma ye itararengeje imyaka itanu, ni ho u Bugesera bwatsinzwe. U Burundi bwateye u Bugesera, butwara igice kimwe, u Rwanda narwo ruratera, rutwara igisigaye, n’uko ingoma y’Abahondogo iganzwa ityo.

 

MUTARA II RWOGERA (1830)


Mu Rwimo rwe ingabo z’u Burundi zateye u Rwanda zirutunguye zinjira bikabije mu gihugu mu Mvejuru. Abanyarwanda bazitaye mu rukubo barazitsemba. Igitero cya Mutara II Rwogera cyarwanyije abo barundi bacyise “Igitero cya Rwagetana”(kugeta bivuga gutema ugakuraho). Na none ku ngoma ya Rwogera, ni ho i Gisaka (cyari gitinyitse kugeza icyo gihe) cyagaruwe n’u Rwanda mu by’1850. Iryo tsindwa ryaturutse ku mpamvu ebyiri : iya mbere ni umwiryane mu bikomangoma by’i Gisaka watumye icyo gihugu cyicamo ibice bitatu : Migongo, Gihunya na Mirenge. Impamvu ya kabiri ni ubuhanga bwo kuboneza imirwano bwa Mutara II Rwogera : gutera intara za Gisaka imwe imwe, gutegura no kugaba igitero mu ibanga no kohereza yo ingabo z’indobanure : Ababito, Abashakamba, Imvejuru, Intaganzwa, Inzirabwoba, Urukamba n’Uruyange.

 

KIGERI IV RWABUGIRI (1860)


Uwo mwami yimye akiri muto (hagati y’imyaka irindwi n’icumi) ni yo mpamvu ibitero by’ibanze ari nyina Nyirakigeri Murorunkwere wabiyoboraga. Ku ngoma ye habaye ibitero byinci, ahanini byari bigamije guhamya ubutegetsi ahari haraguwe vuba, dore ingero : Ijwi, Ndorwa, Gisaka. Ikindi ibyo bitero byari bigamije ni ukwagura u Rwanda (ariko nta kiyongereyeho) mo kunyaga inka n’abaja.

Bimwe mu by’ingenzi biranga ingoma ye ni ibi : gukaza intambara zo kurengera no kwagura u Rwanda (yakundaga intambara, ku buryo mu bisingizo bye harimo icy’”Inkotanyi cyane” na “Rukayababisha”, gutunganya ubutegetsi bw’igihugu : imirwa hirya no hino, kudatinya kwica abakomeye kabone n’aho baba ari ibikomangoma nka Nkoronko, kwegera rubanda akabatoramo abatware b’abatoni no kugabira intwari iminyago).

• Ibiranga ingoma nyiginya n’ibishyitsi byayo

1. Ubwami n’umwami


Ubwami ngo bukomoka kuri “Gihanga cyahanze inka n’ingoma”. Dukurikije ibivugwa mu migani ku mavu n’amavuko y’Abatutsi (imigani bise ibirari) bavuga ko abasekuruza ba Gihanga bakomoka kuri Kigwa (ngo wamanutse mu ijuru). Naho umwami ngo si umuntu ni Imana, kandi ngo Rurema niyo imuhitamo. Hari n’amazina y’ibisingizo bamuhaga. Amwe ni aya : Umugabe (nyina akitwa umugabekazi), Nyiringoma, Nyirigihugu, Nyiringabo, Nyirinka, Nyabami (umwami w’abami), Nyagasani (utanga ihirwe cyangwa umugisha), Sugu (mu bisigo bivuga usumba byose), Nyamugirubutangwa (uca urubanza rudakuba). Umwami yagombaga gutegekana na nyina, nyina yaba atakiriho akagira umusimbura akaba nyina mu bwami (bigomba kuba byarabaga ighe cy’iyimikwa gusa, kuko Murorunkwere, nyina wa Rwabugiri, yapfuye ntihagire umusimbura).

 

2. Ibimenyetso by’ubwami (babyitaga ‘Inyonga’)


Ikirangabwami cy’ibanze cyari ingoma y’ingabe Karinga. Ngo ikirangabwami cy’ibanze ku ngoma ya Gihanga cyari inyundo, hanyuma kuri iyo ngoma himikwa urusengo (nka bene izi bavuza) rwitwaga Nyamiringa. Mu by’1950 urwo rusengo rwari rukiriho ibwami. Nyuma y’urwo rusengo, ngo Gihanga yimitse ingoma Rwoga aba ariyo iba ingabe. Ibyo byose ariko ni ngo baba babyitirira Gihanga ngo kuko Rubunga igisekuruza cy’abiru b’Abatege b’i Remera rya Kabagari ari igisekuruza cya 16 cya Sezibera, umwami uherutse w’abo biru wari ukiriho mu by’1970. Ngo ntaho ahuriye rero na Gihanga rero, n’ubwo bavuga ko ko ari we wahishuriye Gihanga ubwiru bwo mu Basinga n’ibyerekeye ingoma z’ingabe nka Rwoga. Iyo Rwoga yatwawe n’Abashi ighe Ndahiro II Cyamatare yishwe. Hanyuma hima ingabe Karinga bitirira Ruganzu II Ndori. Muri politiki y’ibwami, ingoma y’ingabe nka Karinga yasumbaga byose, igasumba n’umwami, kuko yagombaga kuyitabarira byaba ngombwa akayipfira.

Ibindi bimenyetso by’ubwami ni Inyundo (yo gucurisha) n’Umuriro. Ku byerekeye Inyundo baranavugaga ngo hariho “Inyundo yacuze Abami”. Naho umuriro wo wagombaga guhora ucanye, kuko washushanyaga “uburame” bw’ubwami. Mu mihango yo kwimika, umwami n’umugabekazi baherezwaga Inyundo, Karinga, Nyamiringa, ubushingo bwo gucana umuriro, kandi bakibutsa ko ubwo ari we wavukanye Imbuto (za zindi enye : Uburo, Amasaka, Isogi n’Inzuzi), agomba kugwiza uburumbuke mu gihugu.

 

3. Ibishyitsi by’ubutegetsi bwa cyami


Ibishyitsi (inkingi) by’ingenzi by’ubwami bw’Abanyiginya ni bitanu. Muri byo umuntu aribanda cyane cyane ku murongo wa politiki ya cyami.

Igishyitsi cya mbere ni inka : kuva kera cyane, zongeraga abagaragu (ubuhake), bityo ingabo zikiyongera, bigatuma nyirazo agira amaboko.

Icya kabiri ni ingabo zigomba kuba nyinci, zigomba no kuba ziyemeje gupfira Karinga.

Icya gatatu ni ikoro ryari rifite akamaro ku bulyo bubiri : hari ugutunga abadahinga bagashobora guhugukira politiki, imyidagaduro n’intambara kandi rigatuma abakobwa n’abagore b’imfura badakora imirimo ivunanye nko guhinga, kuvoma n’ibindi, hari no kugaragaza ko abatangaga ikoro bayobotse maze umwami akagabura ibya rubanda, maze agakunda akitwa “umunyabuntu”.

Icya kane ni ububasha bwo kwica ugakiza : umwami n’umugabekazi bari bafite uburenganzira bwo kwica no kuzimya inzigo.

Icya gatanu ni umurongo wa politiki ya cyami.

 

4. Umurongo wa politiki ya cyami

- Ku byerekeye ubwami

Ububasha n’ubutegetsi bwa cyami buri mu ngoma y’ingabe Karinga: bityo rero Karinga isumba umwami. Umwami si umuntu nk’abandi: ari ukwe kuko aba yaratowe na Rurema. Umwami asimburwa n’umuhungu we gusa kandi akava mu bwoko bw’Abanyiginya, banabita Abasindi ahari kuko bakomoka kuri Yuhi I Musindi, cyangwa Abaroba kuko kuko bakomoka ku mwami Ndoba.

- Ku byerekeye igihugu

Igihugu kigomba kwagurwa byanze bikunze. Iryo niryo shingiro ry’ibitero bigenewe kwagura igihugu. Mu by’ukuri kwari ugushaka gusubiranya igihugu kigari cya Gihanga cyari kigizwe n’u Rwanda, u Burundi, u Bushi, u Bugoyi, i Ndorwa, i Gisaka, u Bushubi…bikabumbirwa hamwe maze bigatwarwa n’umwuzukuruza wa Kanyarwanda ka “Gihanga Ngomijana”. Bityo rero “igihugu ni icy’umwe” (iyo yari imvugo yo mu bwiru).

- Imirimo y’ingenzi y’ubwami

Iyo mirimo yari igamije gutunganya ibi bikurikira : icya mbere ni uburumbuke bw’imyaka n’ubwororoke bw’abantu n’ubw’amatungo. Ibyo bikaba byari bishinzwe abami bitwa Mutara na Cyirima. Icya kabiri ni uburame bw’umwami bwagaragazwaga n’umuriro : umuhango wo gucana umuriro wari ushinzwe abami bitwaga Yuhi. Icya gatatu ni itabaro (ni ukuvuga kugaba ibitero no kurwana ku gihugu cyatewe): uwo wari umurimo w’abami bitwa Kigeri cyangwa Mibambwe (kera Ndahiro na Ruganzu babarirwaga muri abo).

- Umurongo wa politiki nyabami

Uwo murongo wagombaga kwamamazwa no gukwirakwizwa ibwami no muri rubanda. Ibwami wamamarizwaga mu bitekerezo, ubwiru, ubucurabwenge, ubusizi n’ibindi.

 

Ibitekerezo : Byavugaga amateka uko agomba gukurikirana, cyane amazina y’abami (ay’abatabashimishije ntabarirwemo : byagaragaye kuri Karemera Rwaka, sekuruza w’Abaka, no kuri Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa waguye ku Rucunshu).

Ubwiru : Bwari ubuhanga n’ubugenge bwo kugena politiki hamwe n’imihango ibushyigikira. Ubwiru kandi bwari ibanga rikomeye, bigatuma rubanda rwumirwa, rugashya ubwoba. Abiru barimo Abatutsi n’Abahutu. Abakijijwe cyane n’uwo mwuga, bakongeraho kuba intwari ku rugamba, baragororewe birabakiza, bityo begera imfura, ndetse bashyingira n’umwami. Ikindi ni uko abiru bose batareshyaga.

Ubucurabwenge : Bwarimo kurondora udasobwa amasekuruza y’abami (izina ry’ubwami n’irye bwite) n’ay’abagabekazi bakanavuga ubwoko bw’abo bagabekazi n’ubwa ba nyina. Baheraga ku mwami uriho bakarangiriza kuri Nkuba (ariwe Shyerezo) bagira bati : “ngaho iyo mwama mukuru wa Samukondo mu mizi yanyu mikuru”. Hari abavuga ko ubucurabwenge ari “Gotha” yo mu Rwanda: ni nk’igitabo gihuriza hamwe imiryango ikomoka ku bami n’iy’ababashyingiye (niyo bitaga iy’ibikomangoma, imfura cyangwa Abatutsi b’izina). Biragaragara ko ubucurabwenge bwarimo politiki yo kwironda no kwimenya. Na none abami batashimishaga barahanagurwaga, kuko Abatekereza b’ibwami bakuraga bene abo bami mu murongo wemewe, bagasa n’abatarigeze bategeka u Rwanda.

Ubusizi : Bwabarirwaga mu bwoko bw’imivugo yari igenewe gusingiza umwami (ibisigo), inka (amazina y’inka), intambara (ibyivugo n’indirimbo z’ingabo). Muri ubwo bwoko bw’ibyivugo, ubw’ingenzi mu gukwirakwiza ibitekerezo by’umurongo wa politiki ni ubw’ibisigo.

Mu magambo make, gusingiza umwami uhagaze n’abo yasimbuye kimwe n’ingoma Karinga, byagendaga ahanini mu bulyo bukurikira (ni zimwe mu ngingo dusanga mu bisigo) :
- Iyimikwa ry’umwami rirogezwa,
- Imirwa y’abami ikaratwa , ababangamiye umwami mu Rwanda bakamaganwa (ngo:“urabicembigambe”),
- Ikinnyego gihebya ababisha (b’ishyanga),
- Akamaro kagizwe kandi kagomba kugirwa n’abatabazi n’abacengeri,
- Umutsindo w’u Rwanda iyo rwateye amahanga,
- Amatiku, amahugu y’inka cyangwa inzuri n’amagomerane y’abantu umwe umwe cyangwa imiryango ibyo byose byabaye impamvu (intandaro) yo gusiga.

Umusizi yari umukozi w’ibwami wemewe. Kubera ibyo, akagira umwanya umugenewe mu mutambagiro wo mu mihango y’ubwiru (nko mu mihango yo kwimika umwami).

Muri rubanda, umurongo wa politiki wamamarizwaga mu migani no mu butegetsi bw’igihugu. Muri ubwo butegetsi, umwami yari afite abatware bamuhagarariye. Akenshi abatware bo mu rwego rwo hejuru (umutware w’ubutaka, umutware w’umukenke n’umutware w’ingabo) babaga ari Abatutsi. Ariko rero ku ngoma ya Rwabugiri, uwo mwami yagiye ashyiraho n’Abahutu yasangaga ari ingirakamaro kubera ubutwari cyangwa ikindi gikorwa gikwiriye ishimwe. Muri abo batware b’abahutu bo rwego rwo hejuru kandi babaye abatoni ku ngoma ya Rwabugiri, twavuga aba bakurikira : Bisangwa na murumuna we Sehene, Bikotwa, Runiga na mwene wabo Nyiriminega, Seruteganya, Nzigiye n’umuhungu we Rwatangabo, Rusine n’umuhungu we Rubindo, Ndarwubatse n’umuhungu we Kanyonyomba, Kazanenda, Ndongozi, Runyange, Mugenzi, Rubago, Ntamuhanga (i Bwisha inyuma y’ibirunga). Abo bose bakwirakwizaga icyubahiro n’ishema bikwiriye umwami.

 

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