REVOLISIYO 1959


Kuva ku itariki ya mbere Ugushyingo 1959, kugera ku itariki ya mbere Nyakanga 1962, u Rwanda rwaranzwe n’imvururu zikomeye cyane. Izo mvururu zarangijwe n’uko Abahutu bafashe ubutegetsi babwambuye Abatutsi, kandi u Rwanda rugasubirana ubwigenge bwarwo. Ibyo bigwi byose byiswe Revolisiyo y’ 1959.

• Intandaro y’iyo Revolisiyo

Ikibazo cy’amoko mu butegetsi

Mbere y’uko Abazungu bagera mu Rwanda, ubutegetsi bwari ubw’Abatutsi, ariko nabo ari igipande gito cyabo, kuko mu by’ukuri ahanini bwari bufitwe n’Abanyiginya bafatanyije n’imiryango mike y’ibyegera byabo. Cyakora n’Abahutu bamwe bashoboraga kwihutura bagahinduka Abatutsi na bo bageraga ku butegetsi. Ubundi kandi hari ibice bimwe by’u Rwanda byategekwaga n’Abahutu kuva kera, cyane cyane mu cyerekezo cya ruguru cy’u Rwanda. Biragaragara rero ko mbere ya gikolonize ubutegetsi bwari ubw’Abatutsi n’ubwo hari Abahutu bake bitwaga ibyihuture bashoboraga kuba abatoni bakomeye ibwami, aha twavuga Abahutu nka Seruteganya na Bisangwa bari ibihangange ku ngoma ya Rwabugiri.

Abadage bagitangira gutegeka u Rwanda mu w’1899 basanze icyo kibazo ari uko kimeze, Abahutu binubira buri gihe akarengane babamo nk’uko byanditswe na Dogiteri Richard Kandt wabaye Rezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda. Ariko ntacyo bashoboye kugikoraho kuko bamaze imyaka mike mu Rwanda, bityo bakaba batarabiboneye igihe. Dogiteri Kandt yavugaga ko ku bwe Abahutu bagombye kwikemurira icyo kibazo ubwabo, kubera ko aribo benshi, aho guhora barira nk’abagore. Ibyo byose birerekana ko ikibazo cy’amoko cyariho mbere y’uko Abazungu bagera mu Rwanda. Abavuga ko Abazungu aribo bakizanye barabeshya, usibye ko Ababiligi bagihaye intera yindi nk’uko bigaragara mu nyandiko zikurikira.

Ababiligi bakigera mu Rwanda mu mwaka w’1916, na bo bahise bakubitana n’icyo kibazo cy’amoko. Mu mwaka w’1926 umubiligi witwaga Mortehan wari Rezida, we yashakaga gushyiraho abategetsi baturutse mu moko yombi kugira ngo agabanye ingufu z’Abatutsi, kuko bamwe muri bo batumviraga bihagije Abazungu. Icyo gihe uwari Musenyiri w’idini rya Gatolika mu Rwanda Mgr Léon Classe, wakomokaga mu Bufaransa, we yashakaga kwiyegereza Abatutsi, yabonaga ko baramutse babatijwe, n’Abahutu b’abagaragu babo bazahita na bo baba abigishwa muri Gatolika. Ibyo aribyo byose yandikiye uwo murezida w’umubiligi amabarwa menshi amumenyesha ko Abahutu badashobora gutegeka, ko naramuka abashyize mu butegetsi u Rwanda ruzarimbuka, ko kandi n’Abahutu ubwabo biyemerera ko badashobora gutegeka, kandi kuva na kera barahoze ari abagaragu. Kubera ko icyo gihe Abapadiri bari bakomeye cyane, kandi ko bakekwagaho kumenya imico y’igihugu, abategetsi b’Ababiligi bahise bemera kandi bashyira mu bikorwa ibyo uwo musenyeri yavugaga.

Guhera icyo gihe, nta Muhutu n’umwe wongeye gusunutsa izuru ku butegetsi, habe yewe n’ubu bwo hasi.

Umuntu yashobora gutanga urugero rwo mu mwaka w’1959, aho mu bashefu 45 umubare wa 43 ari abashefu b’Abatutsi, n’abasushefu 549 b’Abatutsi mu mubare w’abasushefu 559. No kuri ziriya sheferi ebyiri zisigara hejuru bavuga ko atari Abahutu bazitegekaga, ahubwo ko nta bashefu zari zifite. Icyo gihe susheferi yajyaga kungana na segiteri imwe cyangwa ebyiri, naho sheferi ikabumba amakomini atatu cyangwa ane. Bariya Bahutu bari bashoboye kugera ku butegetsi na bo nibwo bari bakibugeraho, kuko mbere y’umwaka w’1953 nta Muhutu numwe wari shefu cyangwa sushefu, keretse bamwe mu Byihuture.

Ibyo bintu rero byari biteye impungenge cyane, kuko mu bihugu byacu ubutegetsi bujyana n’ubukungu, ku buryo utagera ku butegetsi atagera no ku bukungu. Ubwo kandi n’amashuli yateguraga abo bategetsi yari yihariwe n’Abatutsi, kuko harimo ivangura rikomeye. Abahutu bashoboye kwinjira mu mashuli bari bake cyane, ahanini ni abigaga mu Iseminari no mu ishuli ry’abarimu (Normal y’i Zaza). Abo bake nabo barangizaga mu Iseminari, nta kazi ka Leta babonaga, keretse bake cyane bajyaga mu bwarimu muri za Misiyoni cyangwa ubukarani bitaga “Commis”. Mu rwego rwo kwiga icyo kibazo, umwami Rudahigwa yashyizeho Komisiyo ibishinzwe ndetse iyo Komisiyo inasohora imibare yerekana uko mu mashuli bavanguraga bikomeye.

Ku banyeshuli 44.196 bo mu mashuli abanza bakorewe ibarura mu mwaka w’1958, 68% bari Abahutu, 31,7% ari Abatutsi naho 0,01% bakaba Abatwa. Mu mashuli yisumbuye, ku banyeshuli 2.856, muri bo 39,2% bari Abahutu, 60,8% bari Abatutsi, muri bo nta Mutwa n’umwe wari mu mashuli yisumbuye. Biragaragara rero ko n’ubwo muri icyo gihe ibintu byari bitangiye guhinduka, ubwikanyize bw’Abatutsi mu mashuli bwari bukabije, kuko batageraga kuri 20% by’Abanyarwanda nyamara bakiharira 60% y’imyanya mu mashuli yisumbuye.

 

Imbonerahamwe yerekana iyo mibare

 
Abahutu
Abatutsi
Abatwa
Bose
%
Bose
%
Bose
%
Amashuli abanza
29.953
67,81
14.211
31,7
32
0.01
Amashuli yisumbuye
1.116
39,2
1.740
60,8

 

Itsikamirwa n’akarengane ka rubanda rugufi

Ubutegetsi bw’ababiligi kuva bwajyaho, bwihaye imigambi yo kuzamura u Rwanda bubifashijwemo n’abategetsi b’abatutsi. Muri iyo migambi, umuntu yavuga nko kubaka imihanda, kurwanya inzara bahingisha amashiku …
Kubera ko nta mafaranga ababiligi bigeze bagenera iyo mirimo, ibyo byose byakorwaga ku gahato, utabyemeye agakubitwa ibiboko “umunani” kuko byagombaga kuba nibura umunani.

Iyo Abazungu bashakaga abakozi bo kubaka imihanda cyangwa kubaka amazu y’ubutegetsi, babwiraga umushefu nawe akabwira sushefu, sushefu akabwira abamotsi bakavuza ihembe ritumira abaturage kw’iperu, ubundi abantu bagashorerwa bajyanwa ku kazi.
Muri icyo gihe kandi ni ho Ababiligi batangiye kurwanya inzara mu Rwanda bahingisha imyumbati cyangwa se ibirayi, baca imiringoti yo kurwanya isuri, bahingisha amashiku : ibyo byose bikaba aribyo bitanga “akazi”. Kugira ngo umushefu cyangwa umusushefu abone amanota meza mu Bazungu, yagombaga kwerekana imiringoti n’amashiku bitubutse, naho ubundi yaranyagwaga.

Buri mutegetsi yakoraga iyo bwabaga kugirango ibyo Abazungu bashaka bigerweho, ni ukuvuga ko rubanda rugufi rugizwe cyane cyane n’Abahutu rwakoreshwaga nk’inyamaswa, inkoni ivuga umunsi n’ijoro. Birumvikana ko mu by’ukuri uwatumaga abantu bafatwa nk’ibikoko ari Umuzungu, ariko abaturage uwo babonaga abakubitisha ni wa mushefu cyangwa se sushefu, abo bose kandi bakaba ari Abatutsi. Ku muturage we rero, uwamukubitaga nta wundi atari Umututsi.
Ubundi kandi kugeza ku itariki ya 17 Ugushyingo 1944, abo bategetsi bose bashyizweho n’Ababiligi nta mushahara bagiraga. Kugira ngo bashobore kubaho nk’abategetsi, buri muhutu yagombaga gukorera abategetsi be uburetwa buhwanye n’akazi k’iminsi 107 buri mwaka. Mu by’ukuri, kubera ko nta genzurwa ryabagaho, iyo minsi yararengaga kure. Ubundi kandi, uwo mutware yasaguriraga bene wabo, ku buryo Abatutsi benci, harimo n’abatari ku butegetsi bari bafite abantu babahingiraga uburetwa. Cyakora hari n’Abahutu bake bashoboye kuba ibirongozi cyangwa abamotsi bakoreraga abasushefu, bisaguriraga ku bakozi boherezaga mu batware.

Ubwo buretwa bw’iminsi 107, Abazungu ni bo babuzamuye, kuko mbere y’uko babyivangamo bwari buhwanye n’iminsi 37 gusa. Ariko umuntu yashoboraga gutanga amafaranga uburetwa bakabumukuriraho. Ibyo byashoborwaga na bake. Usibye ubwo buretwa, abantu bagombaga gushyikiriza abatware babo amaturo bwinci nk’ikoro, tutibagiwe n’umusoro w’Abazungu wari uhwanye n’akazi k’iminsi 30 mu mwaka w’1945. Mbese muri uwo mwaka, umuntu agereranyije agafata F 1,5 bahembaga umukozi ku munsi, yasangaga buri muturage yaratangaga ibibikurikira ku mwaka :

Kugura uburetwa
F 19.5
Iminsi 60 y'akazi
F 90.0
Umusoro wa leta
F 46.0
Ikoro
F 6.0
Igiteranyo
F 161.5



Ni ukuvuga ko umuturage wifashije washoboraga gutanga amafaranga ngo bamukurireho uburetwa, yatangaga ibihwanye n’amafaranga 161,5 angana n’iminsi 110 y’akazi ku mwaka.

Kugirango umuntu agire ikigereranyo n’amafaranga yo mu gihe cy’1990 – 1993 yakuba n’amafaranga 100 y’umubyizi, ubwo rero umuturage yatangaga buri mwaka amafaranga 11.000. Nkuko hejuru byanditse umuturage utarashoboraga kugura uburetwa yakoraga akazi karenze icyo kigereranyo cy’amafaranga kure. Ibyo byose byatumye abaturage bahunga akazi n’uburetwa bakajya mu mahanga kandi bajyanywe no gupagasa umusoro w’Ababiligi. Ababibaze basanga ko kugeza mu mwaka w’1959, umubare ugera kuri 75% w’abagabo n’abasore barigeze guhungira mu mahanga i Buganda, i Kongo cyangwa muri Tanganyika. Uko kugenda kwabo nako kwatumaga akazi kiyongera ku basigaye, ku buryo Abanyarwanda benci bari barabuze epfo na ruguru.

Akazi k’uburetwa bavuga ko katakozwe gusa n’Abahutu ko n’umubare utari muto w’Abatutsi, nawo wakoraga ak’uburetwa cyangwa bagakubitwa nk’Abahutu mbese nta tandukanyirizo riri hagati yabo.

Kuri ako karengane kandi, nta wakwibagirwa umuruho waturukaga ku buhake bwari bushingiye ku nka. Ubuhake bugitangira bwari bushingiye ku bw’umvikane bw’abantu babiri. Iyo umuntu yashakaga inka, cyangwa se amaboko, yashoboraga kwisunga umuntu ukomeye wahindukaga shebuja, we akaba umugaragu we. Shebuja yageraga aho akamuha inka, undi na we akaba umuntu we akamuhingira, akamwubakira inzu, akamuherekeza agiye ku rugendo …
Nyuma ariko ubuhake bwageze aho burakabya, ku buryo uwabaga umugaragu byamwokamaga. Byageze aho ndetse abantu bakajya bavuga ko buri muhutu ari umugaragu, ko agomba kugira shebuja umuhatse. Ibyo byose byajyanaga no kunyaga inka z’Abahutu, kubirukana mu masambu yabo, kandi ntaho bashobora kurenganurwa.
Kubera ako karengane, ubutindi bwariyongereye muri rubanda rugufi, kuko buri wese yumvaga nta ho ava kandi nta ho ajya. Byakubitiraho ko imvura itagwiriye igihe, rubanda rukarimburwa n’inzara, nk’iya Ruzagayura (1942 - 1945) yahitanye abantu bagera ku bihumbi 300.000. Ubundi kandi byatumye amoko yo mu Rwanda azirana, kuko Abahutu bibwiraga ko Abatutsi ari bo babatera ibyago byose bibagwirira. Ni ukuvuga rero ko Abahutu bari bategereje ko babona uburyo bwo kwibohoza ku ngoyi ya gihake mbere y’iya gikolonize, kuko nk’uko byanditswe hejuru, abategetsi b’abatutsi nibo bakubitaga cyangwa bakubitishaga abaturage.

 

Abanyarwanda bakangukira ibibazo bya politiki

Twibuke ko igihe intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose irangiye (1946), u Bubiligi bwakomeje gutegeka u Rwanda ariko buhagarariye Loni (ONU). Ni yo mpamvu intumwa za Loni zazaga mu Rwanda buri myaka itatu kureba uko byifashe. Izo ntumwa zatangiye kugera mu Rwanda muri 1948. Ni zo zasabye Ababiligi ko ikiboko cyacibwa, ko uburetwa bwavaho, amashuli akongerwa, mbese u Bubiligi bukarushaho kwita ku majyambere y’u Rwanda, ndetse bagatoza Abanyarwanda ibya demokarasi, kugira ngo bazashobore kwigenga mu minsi iri imbere. Ibyo byose u Bubiligi bwarabyemeye, ku buryo bwabiteganyije muri gahunda y’imyaka icumi yasinywe ku itariki ya 17 Mata 1952. Ni muri icyo gihe uburetwa (1949) n’ikiboko (1951) byavuyeho n’ubwo byakomezaga rwihishwa, ndetse n’ubuhake umwami Rudahigwa yabukuyeho mu w’1954.

Muri icyo gihe kandi hari Abahutu bamwe bari barashoboye kwinjira mu mashuli yisumbuye nka Seminari cyangwa Normali, abandi bakaba barabaye abacuruzi, abafundi, abadozi …, mbese abahutu bamwe bari batangiye kujijuka, ku buryo batari bagishobora kwihanganira iterabwoba n’akarengane. Abo nibo bayoboye Revolisiyo yo mu w’1959. Ubundi kandi muri ya gahunda yo mu w’1952, Ababiligi bari bateguye gutoza Abanyarwanda demokarasi, bakoresha amatora y’abategetsi. Abanyarwanda bagombaga gutora ababahagararira mu nama ya susheferi, iya sheferi no mu Nama Nkuru y’Igihugu yayoborwaga n’umwami Rudahigwa. Ayo matora yabaye mu w’1953 no mu w’1956. Abantu benci bizeraga icyo gihe, ubwo abategetsi bagiye gutorwa ko noneho n’Abahutu bazashobora gutambuka kuko aribo bari benci. Koko mu rwego rwa susheferi Abahutu batowe ari benci, ariko wagera mu nzego zo hejuru ugasanga batarimo kubera ubutiriganya n’iterabwoba byaranze amatora. Ibyo bintu byababaje Abahutu cyane, ku buryo guhera mu w’1954, batangiye kwandika mu binyamakuru baharanira uburenganzira bwabo.

Twibutse ko Kayibanda yabaye umwanditsi mukuru wa Kinyamateka mu w’1954 akaba n’umwanditsi muri “L’Ami”, naho Aloyizi Munyagaju akaba umwanditsi muri “Temps Nouveaux d’Afrique” yandikirwaga Usumbura (Bujumbura). Abo bagabo bahaye urubuga Abahutu barandika karahava, ku buryo ikibazo cy’amoko mu Rwanda cyahindutse ikibazo giteye inkeke, abari ku butegetsi batangira kugira ubwoba, bashakisha ukuntu bazabugumaho.

Icyo gihe Abahutu na bo bamenye ko ari bo benci, ko bafite ingufu zihagije kugira ngo bashobore gufata ubutegetsi. Twibuke kandi ko icyo gihe muri Afurika yose hari umuyaga wagushaga ku kwipakurura ubukolonize, cyane cyane ko inama yari yabereye i Bandoeng (Bandugu) muri Indoneziya mu w’1955 yari yemeje ko ibihugu byose bigomba kwigenga, ko nta gihugu gifite ububasha bwo gukandamiza ikindi. Kuva ubwo rero imitwe yarashyushye, abantu benci barahaguruka, bamwe ari Abahutu nka Yozefu Habyarimana bitaga Gitera, Geregori Kayibanda, Aloyizi Munyagaju, abandi ari Abatutsi nka Prosperi Bwanakweri, Lazaro Ndazaro, Mikayire Kayihura, Petero Mungarurire n’abandi benci.

Abahutu bashakaga kubohoza ahanini rubanda rugufi mbere yo kwaka ubwigenge, kuko babonaga ko ubwigenge bubonetse Abahutu bakiri mu “buja”, byari kuba birangiye, isi ahari ikarinda ishira bakiri mu “buja”, cyane cyane kuko icyo gihe Umuhutu byavugaga umucakara.

Abatutsi bamwe nka Prosuperi Bwanakweri, Lazaro Ndazaro n’Umuhutu witwaga Mikayire Rwagasana bo bifuzaga ko haba ingoma ya Cyami, ariko umwami agakorana n’inteko ishinga amategeko ifite ububasha buhagije. Cyakora abo Batutsi muri rusange bari bake. Abatutsi benci bashakaga ahubwo ko ubwami bugumaho uko bwari bumeze, ariko u Rwanda rukabona ubwigenge vuba vuba, kugirango ikibazo cy’amoko bakizinzike. Nguko rero uko ibintu byari bimeze mu by’1955. Biragaragara ko Abatutsi benci bari batsimbaraye ku nyungu zabo, izo nyungu kandi bagashaka kuzihuza n’iz’ubwoko. Aha rero niho havutse ibibazo, kuko umuntu yagendaga yumva buhoro buhoro ko kugira ngo yibohoze yagombaga kurwanya Umututsi. Ibyo ari byo byose, ni muri icyo gihe amashyirahamwe menci yavutse, kubera ko Ababiligi batemeraga amashyaka ya politiki.


Ni bwo umupadiri witwa Sitanisilasi Bushayija afatanyije na Lazaro Ndazaro na Prosuperi Bwanakweri na Sitefano Rwigemera murumuna w’umwami Rudahigwa, bashingiye ku Kamonyi ku itariki ya 19 Werurwe 1955 ishyirahamwe ryitwa “Mouvement Democratique Progressiste”. Umwaka ukurikiyeho (1956) Abatutsi bashyizeho ishyirahamwe ry’aborozi b’u Rwanda bise “Association des Eleveurs du Rwanda” (ASSERU). Naho Geregori Kayibanda ashinga “Mouvement Social Muhutu” yari igamije kurengera Umuhutu. Yozefu Gitera we yahimbye “Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse” (APROSOMA) ku itariki ya 01 Ugushyingo 1957 i Save. Ayo mashyirahamwe yose niyo azavukamo amashyaka ya politiki kandi yose asa n’ashingiye ku moko.

Icyo kibazo cy’amoko cyakomeje gutera inkeke, ku buryo ku itariki ya 24 Werurwe 1957, Abahutu icyenda barimo Kayibanda, Gitera, Magisi, Niyonzima basinye inyandiko bise ‘‘Note sur l’aspect social du problème racial indigène au Rwanda’’ yavugaga uko ikibazo cy’amoko kimeze mu Rwanda. Iyo nyandiko abantu bahise bayihimba izina rya ‘‘Manifeste’’ y’Abahutu, kandi yari yo koko, kuko yarwanyaga ubwikanyize, ikarwanira uburenganzira bwa buri wese, igasaba iringaniza mu mashuli yisumbuye bakurikije amoko, igashaka ko isambu y’umuntu iba iye koko …, mbese yashakaga kurenganura rubanda rugufi mu nzego zose.

Birumvikana ko ibintu byari bimaze gukomera. Umwaka ukurikiyeho w’1958, ni bwo umwami Rudahigwa yashyizeho ku itariki ya 30 Werurwe 1958 Komisiyo yise ‘‘Commission Spéciale des Relations Sociales au Rwanda’’ (Komisiyo idasanzwe yo gusuzuma imibanire y’abaturage mu Rwanda). Iyo Komisiyo yari igizwe n’Abahutu n’Abatutsi kandi ikagomba kwerekana neza uko icyo kibazo giteye. Raporo y’iyo Komisiyo yaje yemeza, ko nta kibazo kiri hagati y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi. Nuko umwami araye ari bujye i Burayi ku ya 12 Kamena 1958, ashingira kuri iyo raporo avuga disikuru ikomeye yemeza ko abakwiza ibyo bibazo by’amoko ari abanzi b’u Rwanda, kandi ko uzakomeza kubyitwaza ari we ubwe bazabonana.

Mbere y‘uko umwami avuga ayo magambo ateye ubwoba ku itariki ya 17 Gicurasi 1958, i Nyanza hasohotse inyandiko yiswe iy’ ‘‘abagagaragu 12 bakuru b’ibwami’’, ikurikirwa ku ya 18 Gicurasi 1958 n’indi y’Abanyarwanda 15 bari i Nyanza. Izo nyandiko mu by’ukuri zari iz’abantu bamwe. Zombi zemezaga ko Abahutu n’Abatutsi nta sano bafitanye, ahubwo ko Abatutsi bakigera mu Rwanda batsinze bakanashahura abami b’Abahutu, ibishwama byabo bakabyambika Karinga. Zikomeza zivuga ko kuva icyo gihe Abahutu babaye abagaragu b’Abatutsi, ibyo bikerekana ko nta buvandimwe bigeze bagirana. Bongereyeho ko Abahutu bashakaga guhinga ibikingi by’Abatutsi bashoboraga kujya guhinga u Bugesera, Icyanya cyangwa se u Rukaryi aho kubuza inka z’Abatutsi ubwatsi. Mu kwa kane 1959 hasohotse itaragiti y’ ‘‘abatabazi b’u Rwanda’’ yanditswe n’Abatutsi babaga ibwami i Nyanza. Iyo nyandiko yari ikaze cyane, kuko yavugaga ko umuntu wese uzarwanya ubwami na Karinga azicwa urw’abagambanyi, akamanikwa ku giti amanywa ava.

Mu by’ukuri Abatutsi benci ntibashakaga kwemera ko hari ikibazo cy’amoko mu Rwanda, ku buryo abagize Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu basabye ko bakura amoko mu ndangamuntu no mu nyandiko zose za Leta. Ibiramambu n’uko Yohani Pawulo Harroy (Haruwa) wari Guverineri w’u Ruanda-Urundi yemeje ko icyo kibazo cyariho, ndetse no mu gisibo cyo mu w’1959 (ku ya 11 Gashyantare 1959), Musenyeri Andereya Perraudin (Perode) yandikiye abakiristu ba Vikariyati ya Kabgayi ibaruwa yemeza ko mu Rwanda hari akarengane gakabije, kubera ko abana bamwe barwo baryamiraga abandi. Kuva icyo gihe uwo Musenyeri yiswe umwanzi w’Abatutsi, ku buryo ibibi byose byabaye nyuma nawe ari mu bo babigeretseho. Ikibazo cy’amoko rero cyari kimaze kuba ingorabahizi, kandi kukibonera umuti mu mahoro byasaga n’ibyananiranye. Hari hasigaye gukoresha ingufu kugira ngo Gahutu asubirane uburenganzira bwe.

 

• Uko Revolisiyo yagenze


Umwaka w’1959 ugitangira, byaragaragaraga ko mu Rwanda amahoro agiye kubura, ko uwo mwaka uzarangwa n’imvururu. Niko byagenze rero kuko Revolisiyo ya 1959 yatangiye ku ya mbere Ugushyingo 1959 ikarangira ku ya 1 Nyakanga 1962 u Rwanda rubonye ubwigenge, kandi ubutegetsi bwa cyami bugiye nyomberi.

 

Ivuka ry’amashyaka ya politiki


Ya mashyirahamwe yatangiye kuvuka mu w’1955, yahindutse yose amashyaka ya politiki mu mwaka w’1959. Byaje kugaragara nyuma ko ayo mashyaka mu by’ukuri amenci yari ashingiye ku moko. Yagombaga kwitegura amatora yari yateganyijwe mu mpera z’1959. Ay’ingenzi yari aya :

Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse (APROSOMA)
Twibuke ko iryo shyaka ryabanje kuba ishyirahamwe Gitera yashingiye i Save ku ya 01 Ugushyingo 1957. Yarihinduyemo ishyaka rya politiki ku itariki ya 15 Gashyantare 1959. Iryo shyaka niryo ryatangiye kurwanya akarengane ka rubanda rugufi, ku buryo ibwami bahinduye APROSOMA umwanzi w’igihugu na Karinga. Niyo mpamvu aba mbere bishwe bazize Revolisiyo bari Aprosoma. APROSOMA yari yashinze imizi muri za teritwari za Astrida (Butare) na Shangugu (Cyangugu).

 

Union Nationale Rwandaise (UNAR)


UNAR yavutse ku itariki ya 03 Nzeri 1959 ikomotse ku ishyirahamwe ry’aborozi bo mu Rwanda (ASSERU). Yari ifite intego yo kwaka ubwigenge vuba kandi ikarwanirira ubwami. Yavugaga ko Ababiligi aribo bazanye ikibazo cy’Abahutu n’Abatutsi mu Rwanda , kugira ngo bacemo uduce Abanyarwanda. UNAR yari yararahiriye kurimbura abanyapolitiki b’Abahutu cyangwa b’Abatutsi bazashaka ko ibintu byahinduka mu Rwanda. Umuhutu witwa Rukeba ni we wari Perezida wayo.

 

Rassemblement Démocratique Rwandais (RADER)


Iryo shyaka ryahimbwe na Ndazaro na Bwanakweri ku ya 14 Nzeri 1959 rivuye kuri rya shyirahamwe ryitwaga ‘‘Mouvement Démocratique Progressiste’’ ryari ishyaka ry’Abatutsi bareba kure, rishyigikiwe n’Abazungu, ndetse n’Umuhutu witwa Anastazi
Makuza yabanje kuribamo. RADER yari ifite intego yo kuzana demokarasi mu Rwanda, iyo demokarasi ikaba ishingiye ku kubana no kubahana kw’amoko ari mu gihugu. Cyakora RADER ntiyigeze igira abayoboke benci, kubera ko icyo gihe ibibazo by’amoko byari byararenze ukwubahana kwayo.

 

Le Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation Hutu (PARMEHUTU)


Iryo shyaka PARMEHUTU, Geregori Kayibanda yarihimbye ku ya 18 Ukwakira 1959 ribyawe na ya Mouvement Social Muhutu yo mu w’1956. PARMEHUTU yari ifite intego yo kubanza kubohoza Abahutu, ikazabona gutangira guharanira ubwigenge. Mu ntego zaryo za mbere, iryo shyaka ntiryarwaniraga Repubulika. Ahubwo ryemeraga ubwami bufatanyije n’Inteko ishinga amategeko. Nyuma y’aho, ku ya 8 Gicurasi 1960. ni ho ryafashe izina rya Mouvement Démocratique Républicain (MDR-PARMEHUTU) mu nama y’i Gitarama, hanyuma muri Kongre idasanzwe yabereye mu Ruhengeri ku ya 6 Kamena 1960, ni bwo iryo shyaka ryashyize ahagaragara ko rizaharanira Repubulika. Cyakora kubera ko Parmehutu yaje nyuma y’andi mashyaka, byatumye UNAR itoteza Abaprosoma, cyane cyane kuko icyo gihe bitwaga abanzi b’umwami.

 

Urupfu rw’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa


Twibutse ko ku itariki ya 12 Kamena 1958, umwami Mutara III yavuze disikuru ihakana ikibazo cy’amoko kandi aburira ababivuga bose ko bazicwa urw’agashinyaguro. Bukeye bw’aho ni bwo yagiye mu ruzinduko mu Burayi ku ya 13 Kamena 1958 aherekejwe n’intore yari ajyanye mu Imurikabikorwa (Exposition Coloniale de l’Afrique Belge) ryabereye i Buruseli. Iryo Murikabikorwa na Geregori Kayibanda yari yarigiyemo. Umwami Rudahigwa muri urwo ruzinduko yashoboye guhura n’abaganga bamumenyesha ko atazashobora kubyara. Icyo gihe yari afite imyaka 47, kandi yari amaze imyaka 25 arongoye. Uko kutabyara kwakomeje guhangayikisha Abanyarwanda ku byerekeye uwazamusimbura aramutse atanze (apfuye). Rudahigwa yavuye i Burayi afite umugambi wo gushyiraho ishyaka rya politiki yifuza ko ryahuza Abanyarwanda. Iryo shyaka yifuzaga kuryita ‘‘Imbaga y’inyabutatu ijya imbere’’ kandi ritegekwa n’Umuhutu witwaga Kosima Rebero wakomokaga Asitirida (Butare) nka Gitera, uwo Kosima yari yarahoze ari Umufurere w’umuyozefiti. Muri iyo minsi ni ho Rudahigwa yanyarukiye Usumbura mu Burundi ku ya 25 Nyakanga 1959. Yagombaga no kubonana n’umuganga we wabaga aho Usumbura. Uwo muganga ngo yaba yaramuteye urushinge rwa penisiline, noneho ahita yitura hasi, aratanga. Icyateye urupfu rw’umwami ntikigeze kimenyekana, ariko ibyegera by’ibwami byahise byemeza ko yishwe n’Ababiligi, na musenyeri Perraudin ndetse n’Abahutu.

Hashize iminsi itatu gusa ku ya 25 Nyakanga 1959, ibyo byegera by’ibwami byahise byimika undi mwami wiswe Kigeri V Ndahindurwa. Yimikiwe i Mwima hafi y’i Nyanza ku mva ya Rudahigwa batarashyingura Umugogo (umurambo) we. Ndahindurwa uwo n’ubwo yari umuhungu wa Musinga yari umuntu utazwi na busa. Yavukiye i Kamembe mu w’1935, akurikira se aho yari yaraciriwe n’Abazungu muri Kongo ahitwa Albertville, hiswe Kalemi Kongo mbiligi imaze kwigenga. Aho se apfiriye mu w’1944, yagarutse mu Rwanda yiga mu ishuli ryo kwandikisha imashini i Nyangezi muri Province ya Kivu, ubundi aba umusushefu hirya no hino mu Rwanda. Iyo ngoma ya Kigeri V Ndahindurwa ntiyatinze na busa, kuko ku itariki ya 25 Nyakanga 1960 yagiye i Léopoldville mu minsi mikuru y’ubwigenge bwa Kongo, kuva ubwo ntiyongeye gutegeka u Rwanda.

 

Intambara y’amoko mu Rwanda


Insoresore z’Abatutsi zakomeje kujya zishotora Abahutu ngo bashoze urugamba, maze zibone uko zishyira mu bikorwa ibyari mu nzandiko z’’abatabazi b’u Rwanda’’. Mu mpera z’umwaka w’1959, ishyaka rya UNAR ryatangiye politiki y’iterabwoba igamije kwica abanyapolitiki bigaragaje mu mashyaka y’Abahutu. Ni ko byagenze rero, kuko ku ya 01 Ugushyingo 1959 insoresore z’Abatutsi zashatse gukubita Dominiko Mbonyumutwa wari sushefu wa ku Ndiza akaba n’Umuparimehutu ukomeye. Zamuteye mu Byimana avuye mu misa, baragundagurana, ariko Mbonyumutwa arabananira kuko yari afite ingufu nyinci. Icyo gihe inkuru yarakwiriye muri Gitarama yose ngo Mbonyumutwa Abatutsi bamwishe, nuko hirya no hino mu Rwanda amazu y’Abatutsi barayatwika, birukanwa mu byabo, abenci bahungira muri za Misiyoni, bamwe baricwa hamwe na hamwe. Umwami n’ingabo ze nabo bahise bategura uko bakwihorera, ni ko kohereza ibiteroshuma bigamije kwica abategetsi b’abahutu. Ni muri iyo minsi Secyugu yiciwe i Nyanza, Polepole Mukwiye akicirwa i Nzega ku Gikongoro naho Kanyaruka wavaga inda imwe na Gitera bakamutsinda i Burundi. Hari n’abandi barwanashyaka b’abahutu biciwe hirya no hino mu gihugu, ku buryo intambara yabaye iy’Abahutu n’Abatutsi ku mugaragaro.

Ababiligi na bo babonye ko byakomeye, bahita bohereza mu Rwanda ingabo bitaga iza Kamina, zari ziturutse muri Kongo mbiligi. Ku ya 11 Ugushyingo 1959, Koloneli BEM Guy Logiest yagizwe Rezida udasanzwe mu Rwanda. Mu rwego rwo kugarura amahoro mu gihugu, Koloneli Logiest yafashe abateye imvururu baba Abahutu baba Abatutsi nuko arabafunga. Abatware b’Abatutsi bamwe barahunga ni uko ahita abasimbuza abashefu n’abasushefu b’agateganyo ariko b’Abahutu. Ibyo byemezo ni bimwe mu byatumye Abahutu bagira uruhare rugaragara mu matora ya Komini yabaye ku ya 26 Kamena kugeza ku ya 30 Nyakanga 1960. Ayo matora yatumye hashyirwaho ababurugumesitiri 229 n’abakonseye 2896, muri bo amashyaka Parmehutu na Aprosoma akagira 83,8%. Abo bategetsi bashya bahise bashyiraho leta y’agateganyo ku ya 20 Ukwakira 1960, Kayibanda yayibereye Minisitiri w’intebe. Hari hasigaye gukuraho ubwami.

 

 

 

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