UBUTEGETSI BW’ABAZUNGU (1899 - 1959)


Twibutse ko mu mwaka w’1899 ni ho Umudage Bethe yabwiye umwami w’u Rwanda, Yuhi V Musinga ko Ubudage buzategeka u Rwanda bufatanyije n’umwami Musinga (Protectorat).
Mu mwaka 1959 wabayemo intangiriro ya Revolisiyo ya rubanda, nyuma y’urupfu rw’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa n’ishyirwaho ry’umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa, warahiriye kuba umwami ugendera kw’Itegekonshinga.

 

• Ingoma Ndage (1899 - 1916)

Uko binjiye mu Gihugu


Umudage wa mbere wabonanye n’umwami w’u Rwanda Kigeri IV Rwabugiri, ni Comte Von Götzen mu w’1984, asanze umwami i Kageyo (Komini Ramba) amuyoboweho na mwene Rwabugiri, Sharangabo yari akuye mu Buganza (Rwamagana). Nyuma y’aho Abadage bakomeje kuzenguruka u Rwanda, bakora ubushakashatsi nka Kandt (bise Kanayoge) wabaye Rezida wa mbere w’umudage mu Rwanda, agataha umurwa wa Kigali mu w’1908, abandi bahazaga baturutse i Bujumbura, bazanywe no gutanga umutekano w’abivumbagatanya badashaka Musinga. Mu w’1900 niho Abapadiri ba mbere b’Abagatolika baje mu Rwanda. Ni abo mu mulyango w’Abapadiri bera. Batashye i Save bavuye kuhasaba ibwami. Abamisiyoneri ba mbere b’Abaporoso baje mu Rwanda mu w’1907, ni abo mu itorero rya Luteri. Ni bo bashinze za Misiyoni zikurikira : Kirinda, Rubengera na Remera rya Rukoma. Bavuye mu Rwanda mu w’1916, bene wabo Abadage baneshejwe n’Ababiligi mu Rwanda. Nyuma, Misiyoni yabo yaje kuvamo Itorero ry’Abaperesipiteriyani mu Rwanda.

 

Umupaka w’amajyaruguru


Mu mwaka w’1910, i Buruseli mu Bubiligi habaye inama yari irimo Abongereza, Abadage n’Ababiligi, ngo bagabane u Rwanda. Bahereye ku Kirunga cya Sabyinyo baca umurongo uzamutse ukagera ku kiyaga kitiriwe Eduwaridi, umwami w’Abongereza, undi bawuca intambike bakurikije uko ibirunga biteye. Bityo u Bubiligi bwegukana igice kiri mu majyaruguru ya Kivu nka za Gishari na Bwishya, hari n’Ijwi. U Bwongereza bwegukana Bufumbira (mu w’1928, bari bakivuga ngo ni u Rwanda rw’Abongereza). U Budage busigarana u Rwanda uko rumeze ubu. Uko gutera imirwi igihugu byababaje Musinga cyane ndetse n’Abatutsi bahategekaga. Mu w’1912, ni ho Komisiyo yo gutera imbago ku mipaka yarangije akazi.

 

Uko Abadage bakoranye na Musinga


Politiki y’ingenzi y’imitegekere y’Abadage yabaye iyo gushyigikira umwami w’u Rwanda n’abatware b’abatutsi. Ibyo bigafasha Abadage kuboneza politiki ya “Protectorat” ijyana n’ubutegetsi buziguye. Birumvikana, kuko Abadage bari mbarwa. Uko gushyigikira no kwanga “akajagari” byatumye abasirikare b’abadage bagaba ibitero hirya no hino byo guhosha imyivumbagatanyo yo kurwanya Musinga. Mu w’1902 bagabye igitero cyo kurwanya Rukura washakaga ubwigenge bwa Gisaka yifashishije Abapadiri b’i Zaza. Mu w’1908 – 1909 bagabye igitero cyo guhashya Basebya, naho mu w’1911 – 1912 bagaba igitero cyo kurwanya Ndungutse bafatanyije n’ingabo z’ibwami (Lt. Gudovius, ari we bwana Lazima) na Rwubusisi. Mu w’1910, Abadage bagabye igitero gikaze mu Murera (Ruhengeri) cyo guhorera Padiri Loupias, Umufaransa wari umaze kwicwa n’ingabo za Rukara rwa Bishingwe, uwo mupadiri yashakaga kuhashyigikira ubutegetsi bwa Musinga, akubitiraho no kwivanga mu by’Abarashi b’indwanyi, kandi icyo gihe yari kumwe n’umugaragu we umutwaje imbunda, ashaka kuyitabaza, baramutanga. Mu w’1914, hadutse intambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Abadage mu Rwanda bashyigikiwe na Musinga hamwe n’ingabo ze zoherejwe ku rugamba bisha na bisha, zitwaga “Indugaruga” zari zigizwe n’Abatutsi. Abaturage bo, uruhare rwabo rwabaye urwo kwikorera imitwaro no gutanga ibiribwa. Mu w’1916 (Kamena), Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (bwana Tembasi) bakuyemo akabo karenge, bahunga Ababiligi babarushaga ubwinshi, kandi bari bunganiwe n’Abongereza. Ng’uko uko bavuye mu Rwanda. Musinga yarinze apfa agikumbuye Abadage.

 

• Ingoma Mbiligi (1916 - 1959)


Urebye mu rwego rwa politiki, Ababiligi ahanini ni bo bahaye u Rwanda isura rwaserukanye igihe cy’ubwigenge. Ariko hari n’uruhare rw’umulyango w’ibihugu ariwo „Société Des Nations“(SDN) kimwe n’urw’abatware b’abatutsi. Ubutegetsi bwabo bwagize ibyiciro bitatu :
Icya mbere ni ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari (occupation militaire) 1916 – 1926
Icya kabiri ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo busesuye (mandat) 1926 – 1949
Icya gatatu ni ubutegetsi bw’indagizo bucagase (tutelle) 1949 – 1962

 

Uko Ababiligi binjiye mu Rwanda


Baje barwanya Abadage mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose. Bari bayoboye abasirikare benshi b’Abanyekongo bari baremye ingabo zitwa „Force Publique“. Binjiye muri Kigali muri Kamena 1916. Abadage bari bayobowe na Kapiteni Wintgens (Tembasi) babonye ko bo ari bake, ko kandi bagiye kugwa mu rukubo, barahunga bagana iya Tanganyika n’u Burundi. Kuva mu w’1916 kugeza mu w’1925, u Rwanda kimwe n’u Burundi rwagize ubutegetsi bwa gisirikare bucungwa n’Ababiligi. Ariko mu mwaka w’1919, umuryango w’ibihugu (Société Des Nations SDN) waragije u Bubiligi ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Babikomatanyiriza hamwe byitwa Ruanda – Urundi, biba nk’intara imwe. Mu w’1925, niho Inama ishinga amategeko y’u Bubiligi yafashe icyemezo, ishyiraho itegeko rigira Ruanda – Urundi nk’imwe mu ntara za Kongo mbiligi ariko Ruanda – Urundi ikagira akantu k’umwihariko.

 

Uko bakoranye n’ubwami


Mu ntangiriro, Ababiligi babanje kwishisha Musinga kandi na we ni uko. Mu w’1917, bashyizeho “Rezidansi” y’u Rwanda. Hategekaga Major Declerk. U Rwanda ubwo rwaciwemo segiteri eshatu muri uwo mwaka, ariko guhera mu w’1921, barucamo teritwari : teritwari y’uburengerazuba umurwa uba Rubengera, teritwari y’amajyaruguru umurwa uba Ruhengeri, teritwari ya Nyanza umurwa uba Nyanza na teritwari y’iburasirazuba umurwa uba Kigali. Ibyo bice by’ubutaka byari bigamije korohereza ubutegetsi , cyane cyane ibyerekeye gushaka ibyangombwa nk’ibiryo. Mu w’1919, ni ho Ababiligi bashyizeho intara zibumbiye hamwe kandi zagombye gushingwa umutware basangaga akize kurusha abandi (ni ubukire ku nka no ku bagaragu). Ubundi umusozi umwe washoboraga kuba utegekwa n’abatware benshi. Izo ntara ziganaga buke imitegekere ya Rwabugiri (Musinga we na Kanjogera bari baraciye igihugu mo uduce twinshi bakigaba kugira ngo bagwize abayoboke). Kuva mu w’1917 kugeza mu w’1931, Ababiligi batangiye kugongana n’ubutegetsi bwa cyami, kugira ngo bisanzure mu butegetsi bwa gikolonize bagiye barandura buhoro buhoro ibishyitsi by’ubwami mu ntera zikurikira :

1917 : umwami bamwambuye uburenganzira bwo kwica. Musinga na Kanjogera bumvise ko bibarangiranye. Musinga yagize ati “ubwo ntagishoboye kwica abantu uko nshaka, sinkiri umwami”. Uwo mwaka nibwo Rezida, Major Declerk ategetse Musinga gusinya iteka riha buri Munyarwanda uburenganzira bwo kuyoboka idini yishakiye. Abahungukiye cyane ni ba Misiyoneri b’Abagatolika.

1922 : umwami bamwatse ububasha mu bucamanza , Musinga yari aziko ari “Nyamugirubutangwa”(Mutavuguruzwa mu byemezo). Ababiligi bemeye ko mu murimo we wo guca imanza, azunganirwa n’umuzungu uhagarariye Rezida.

1923 : umwami bamugabanyirije ububasha bwo kugaba imisozi. Muri uwo mwaka bamubujije gushyiraho abatware mu gihugu no kubanyaga uko ashaka, abatware b’intara na bo ntibashoboraga gushyiraho abasushefu bitabanje kunyura kuri Rezida.

1925 : ubwiru bwavanyweho kimwe n’umuganura. Kimwe mu byo ubwiru bwari bushinzwe ni ukuboneza umuhango w’umuganura. Muri uwo mwaka, adiministrateri wa Nyanza yafashe icyemezo cyo “guca” Gashamura umutware w’Abiru, amucira i Gitega (Burundi). Bamuzizaga ko yari afite uruhare mu mitegekere no mu mibanire y’ibwami n’Abazungu. Mgr Classe na we uwo mugambi wo kwigizayo Gashamura yari awurimo. Rwampungu, umuhungu wa Gashamura, bahise bamushyira mu ishuli riyoborwa n’Umubiligi, bityo “ubwiru” burazima kuko bari babuciye umutwe. Na Bandora wari umupfumu n’umujyanama w’ibwami, Ababiligi bamwirukanye ibwami. Nguko uko ibishyitsi by’ubwami byaranduwe, Musinga na Kanjogera bakabura amaboko yari abafatiye runini mu butegetsi bwabo, mbese basigara ari abami ku izina. Icyari gisigaye ni ukubikiza nabo ubwabo : mu w’1926, ubwami bwarakendereye nta ngufu bwari bufite.

1931 : umwami Yuhi Musinga na nyina Kanjogera baciriwe i Kamembe, bava ku butegetsi, Ababiligi babifashijwemo na Mgr Classe, bashyiraho Rudahigwa, ndetse baramwiyimikira, bamwita Mutara (bakurikije inama z’uwo musenyeri). Rudahigwa bwakeye atangaza icyo bise “Irivuze umwami” : ngo abantu bose bazayoboke za misiyoni, aribyo kuvuga ngo bazayoboke Abapadiri.

Ivugurura ry’ubutegetsi (1926 - 1930)
Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abatware batatu bari basanzwe bategeka ahantu hamwe. Abo batware ni aba :

“umutware w’ubutaka” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibihingwa n’ibiva mu myuga, yari umutware w’Abahutu, akaburanisha n’ibyerekeye amasambu.

“umutware w’umukenke” : yakoreshaga amakoro y’ibikomoka ku nka, yakebaga ibikingi akanabitanga, abiha ufite inka zirenze eshanu. Bene uwo mutunzi yabazwaga imirimo ya gitutsi kabona n’aho yaba Umuhutu. Umutware w’umukenke nta bubasha yari afite bwo kuburanisha.

“umutware w’ingabo” : yabazwaga ibyerekeye itabaro n’imanza zerekeye ibikingi n’izindi mpamvu zashoboraga kuboneka hagati y’imiryango.

Hari ubwo byabagaho umuntu umwe akomatanya imirimo ibiri. Umuntu yavuga nka Rwabirinda rwa Rwogera yari umutware w’ubutaka n’umutware w’umukenke mu Mpara (Kinyaga), umuhutu Ndongozi se wa Basomingera na we yari abumbye iyo mirimo yombi mu Bwanacyambwe.

 

Ivugururwa ry’ubutegetsi rya Rezida Mortehan (1926)


Iryo vugurura ryakuyeho abo batware batatu bari bari bafite ubutegetsi hirya no hino mu gihugu (nka Gashamura yategekaga igice cy’u Bumbogo, icy’u Buriza, icy’i Gisaka n’ibindi). Urwego rw’igiti (district) rwabaye nk’urusimburwa na Teritwari, urw’igikingi rusimburwa na za Susheferi. Hagati y’izo nzego zombi, Rezida Mortehan yunzemo urwego rwa Sheferi rutari rufite urundi rusa na rwo mu butegetsi bwa cyami.

 


Inkurikizi z’iryo vugururwa


Imirimo y’ubutaka n’iy’inka yeguriwe umutware umwe rukumbi. Bene uwo mutware yahise agira ubutegetsi buremereye kandi bubumbiye hamwe, ni ubutegetsi bukomeye muri politiki no mu cyubahiro. Umutware yafashe intera nshyashya.

- Abahutu batwaraga baburiyemo, ubutegetsi busigara bwihariwe ahanini n’Abatutsi. Twibuke ko “igiti” ari ko kuvuga urwego rw’ubutegetsi rwari rugamije kwaka amakoro y’ibwami rwihariwe n’Abatutsi hafi ya bose. Abanyazwe barakennye cyane. Abahutu bakora akazi cyane ngo batunge Abatutsi bafitanye isano n’abo batware.

- Uburyo bwa kera bwo kwitabaza umutware w’ingabo cyangwa undi mu by’imanza bwarazimiye.

- Ubuhake bwongereye umurego : umutware mushya yagize uburyo bwo kubona abagaragu bashya, baturutse ahanini ku bashaka gusonerwa mu “kazi”. Abagaragu baturutse kuri icyo gitugu cya politiki ya gikolonize, bakomeje kwiyongera.

- Amashuli n’ubutegetsi bw’abakarani byatumye shefu na sushefu bakomera muri ubwo butegetsi bwa gikolonize. Akenshi kandi abatware bashya bari bafite icyizere cyo kuzaramba mu butegetsi : icyari ngombwa kwari ukumenya amayeri yo guhakirizwa ku bazungu, ari aba Leta, ari na ba Misiyoneri.

 

Gahunda ya politiki ya Guverineri Voisin (1930)


Guhamishaho no gushyigikira ubutegetsi busanzwe mu Rwanda, mu gihe butabangamiye amabwiriza ya kijyambere. Kugenzura cyane ubwo butegetsi kugira ngo budakabya mu byerekeye uburetwa n’amakoro. Kunyaga no gusimbura abatware badashoboye, bagasimbuzwa abakandida batanzwe ku bwumvikane bwagiranywe n’umwami buri gihe. Kubumbira hamwe intara z’ubutegetsi, ku buryo ibikingi biri intage byatunganywa, bikegeranywa bitegekwa n’umuntu umwe. Abategetsi b’abazungu bagomba kwicengezamo igitekerezo ko, nta bufatanye bw’abategetsi kavukire, ubutegetsi bwa kinyamahanga bwagera aho bukabura imbaraga kandi bugasatirwa n’akajagari ko kutagira ubutegetsi. Mu by’ukuri, iyo gahunda nta kintu gishya yongeye ku mabwiriza yari yaratanzwe mbere kuva mu w’1926. Icyakora yarushijeho gushimangira ubutegetsi bushingiye ku bafasha bo mu bwoko bumwe : Abatitsi. Kuba abatware boroheje b’Abahutu baravanyweho n’Ababiligi, ibyo byabaye no mu Burundi.

 

• Uruhare rw’Abazungu mu kibazo cy’amoko

Abadage


Abadage bakurikiranye amoko y’Abanyarwanda n’ubutegetsi bwabo, bakunze kwemeza ko Abatutsi ari bo bari bafite umwanya ugaragara mu butegetsi. Habonetse ariko abasanze mu duhugu tw’amajyaruguru, ubutegetsi bwa buri munsi bwari buri mu maboko y’Abahutu. Ibyo aribyo byose, icyo ubutegetsi bwabo bwa gikolonize bwari bugamije, ni ukubona abategetsi kavukire babunganira : abo batoranyije ni Abatutsi. Ibyo bigatuma bakabiriza imbaraga z’ubutegetsi bwa Musinga, bahamya ko bugera ku mipaka yose y’u Rwanda, ndetse ko uturere twose tumwumvira. Ibyo byakunze kugaragara muri za raporo zabo. Dore urugero rw’umurongo wa politiki y’ubutegetsi buziguye : bwana Bethe we yavuze ko ngo n’ubwo hariho ibikorwa n’ibimenyetso bigaragaza igitugu n’ugukandamizwa kw’Abahutu, nta kuntu Abadage batakwifuza ko ubwo butegetsi bw’Abatutsi bugumaho, kuko ngo abaturage bari benci. Agacishiriza ko ngo abaturage b’u Rwanda bageze kuri miliyoni ebyiri. Umumaro w’Abazungu uzarushaho kugaragara vuba nibifashisha ubwoko butegeka, ari nako bwumvira nta shiti umutegetsi wabwo, umwami.

Icyashishikaje Abadage si uguhita barenganura uwarenganaga uwo ariwe wese, ahubwo bari bahimbajwe no gukorana na Musinga. Rezida Kandt (Kanayoge) yashyigikiye bigaragara abatware b’Abatutsi. Musinga nawe yanyuzwe n’iyo politiki, ndetse mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi, yandikiye abategetsi b’Abadage bari mu Rwanda ngo bazamushyikirize “Abahutu” bo mu Bushiru nibaramuka badatunganyije ibyangombwa byo gushyigikira ingabo z’Abadage. Abadage ntibakurikiranye ikibazo cyo kurenganura amoko yarenganye.

 

Ababiligi


Mu mwaka w’1926, Minisitiri wa za Koloni mbiligi, ariwe Ludoviko Franck, yategetse ko Ababiligi muri Ruanda – Urundi bagomba gukurikiza politiki y’ubutegetsi buziguye (ni ubwifashisha abategetsi kavukire, ntibwivange mu baturage). Yemeje ko byanze bikunze bagomba kwifashisha Abatutsi. Iyo politiki y’irondakoko yashyizwe mu bikorwa ku buryo bubiri : mu mashuri no mu butegetsi (administration).

 

Mu rwego rw’amashuli


Amashuli ya Leta yari agenewe Abatutsi akenci bavugaga ko ari abana b’abatware. Mu w’1919, bashinze ishuli rya Leta i Nyanza, bategeka Musinga kuryoherezamo abahungu be. Ryari rigenewe abana b’abatware. Mu by’1920 – 1923, bongeyeho andi mashuli ya Leta mu rwego rw’amashuli abanza : Ruhengeri, Gatsibo, Rukira, Cyangugu. Mu w’1929, abanyeshuli b’Abatutsi bari muri ayo mashuri uko ari atanu bari 969. Iyo mirerwa yamaraga kubona inyigisho z’indobanure, igakwirakwizwa mu gihugu hose, ari mu butegetsi, ari mu bukarani, ari mu bwarimu.
Amashuli y’Abapadiri bera : amashuli ya Leta agenewe Abatutsi yunganiwe n’amashuli ya za Misiyoni zimwe na zimwe. Abatutsi bagiraga ukwabo kandi bagahabwa inyigisho zihariye : aho ni nka Save, Kansi, Kigali. Ibyo byakurikizaga amabwiriza ya Mgr Classe.
Ishuli rya “Groupe Scolaire y’Astrida” (Butare) : ryari ishuli riyoborwa n’Abafurere b’Abashariti, ariko rikarihirwa na Leta. Ubutegetsi bwa Leta bwararishyigikiye cyane, kuko ryanategekwaga na bene wabo. Benci mu bize muri iryo shuri ryisumbuye, bari Abatutsi.
Imibare iragaragaza ubusumbane bw’amoko muri iryo shuli. Kuva mu w’1932, ari nabwo amasomo yatangiyemo kugeza mu w’1962, iryo shuri ryinjiwemo n’Abanyarwanda bangana batya : Abatutsi 850 = 37,7%, Abahutu 295 = 13,0%, abandi Banyarwanda batandikishije ubwoko 120 = 5,3%, Abanyarwanda bose hamwe ni 1265 = 56,0%, abasigaye 985 (44%) ni Abarundi n’ab’ahandi nk’Ababiligi, Abanyekongo, Abagereki, Abaganda n’Abahindi.

Imbonerahamwe yerekana umubare w’Abanyarwanda bemerewe kwiga muri “Groupe Scolaire d’Astrida” (Ishuli ry’indatwa) 1932 - 1962

Umwaka Abatutsi Abahutu Abatanditse Bose
1932 28 1 0 29
1933 11 0 0 11
1934 16 6 0 22
1935 8 0 27 35
1936 14 2 0 16
1937 17 3 0 20
1938 19 6 0 25
1939 20 11 0 31
1940 25 6 1 32
1941 15 10 0 25
1942 21 2 1 24
1943 23 3 0 26
1944 25 4 1 30
1945 29 2 0 31
1946 27 1 0 28
1947 26 4 0 30
1948 43 3 0 46
1949 43 6 0 49
1950 35 9 0 44
1951 52 18 15 85
1952 33 7 0 40
1953 40 8 1 49
1954 37 10 0 47
1955 50 26 0 76
1956 40 17 0 57
1957/58 42 12 2 56
1958/59 26 18 19 63
1959/60 13 5 33 51
1960/61 14 30 19 63
1961/62 58 65 1 124
Igiteranyo 850 295 1385 1265



Imbonerahamwe y’umubare w’Abanyarwanda bemerewe buri myaka icumi kwiga muri Groupe Scolaire Astrida

Umwaka Abatutsi Abahutu Abatanditse Bose Ijanisha
  %   %   %   %
1932 - 1942 186 79,15% 47 20,00% 2 0,85% 235 100,00%
1943 - 1952 336 82,20% 57 13,90% 16 3,90% 409 100,00%
1953 - 1962 320 54,60% 191 32,60% 75 12,80% 586 100,00%
1935 8 22,85% 0 0,00% 27 77,10% 35 100,00%
Bose 850 67,20% 295 23,30% 120 9,50% 1265,00% 100,00%

Mu mwaka w’1935, ntawe uzi impamvu ubwoko (Abatutsi, Abahutu, Abatwa) butandikwa nko mu yindi myaka, ahubwo umubare w’ubwoko butazwi ukaba munini.

Abanyarwanda barangizaga muri Groupe Scolaire y’Astrida bahitaga babona akazi muri Leta. Kubera ko bari imirerwa y’Ababiligi, biswe kandi na bo bakundaga kwiyita “Indatwa”.

 

Mu butegetsi


Dore ingero z’icyo bise “Tutsisation”. Mu Bushiru, Ababiligi bashyigikiye abatware b’abatutsi ba mbere mu gutura muri icyo gihugu.
Mu w’1925 ni ho Nyangezi, Umututsi w’Umuha, yatangiye gutegeka u Bushiru n’u Bwanamwari ashyigikiwe n’Ababiligi n’Abapadiri bera b’i Rambura. Muri uwo mwaka niho umwami w’u Bushiru Nyamakwa n’uwa Bwanamari Rukaburacumu bavanywe ku butegetsi. N’ahandi nka Buhoma – Buhanga, Rwankeri, Murera, Kibari, Bukonya. Uwabigizemo uruhare cyane ni bwana Borgers (Longolongo), Adiministirateri wa Ruhengeri. Aho hose hashyizwe abatware b’Abatutsi.
Mu Bumbogo, umwami waho wa nyuma kandi wari ukaze, Nyamurasa (Umuhutu wo mu Bega) yavanyweho n’Ababiligi, bwana Borgers na Sandrart, mu w’1928, bamuciriye I Cyangugu. Kuva ubwo Abatsobe bahabwa rugari, n’ubwo bari basanzwe baragabiwe na Musinga.
Mu Busigi muri Byumba, umuhinza wa nyuma, Nyamikenke, yanyazwe n’Ababiligi mu w’1924.
Habaye ubutegetsi bwa gisirikari bw’Ababiligi mu Bukunzi (1924 - 1925) no mu Busozo (1925 - 1926), abami baho basimbuzwa Rwagataraka, Umwega w’umwakagara.

Iyo politiki yatumye ubusumbane bw’amoko bukomera.

 

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